Indian Coffee And The Harvesting Of The Premium Quality Coffee
Coffee is grown in many parts of India, including Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. This coffee Cultivation is spreading rapidly in the areas of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha. Coffee is predominantly an export-oriented commodity, and mostly around 60%-70% of the coffee is exporting while the other remaining is used in the country. This is a product that has a high employment rate. According to a survey, more than 6 lakh people are directly employed, and the same number of people are indirectly employed by the coffee sector.
The two main varieties of Coffee that are Arabica and Robusta, are growing in India Arabica is mild Coffee, but beans are more aromatic, it has higher market value as compared to Robusta. On the other hand, Robusta is more strong and therefore used in various blends. Arabica is used at higher altitudes than Robusta. Arabica requires more care and nurture, and also, it is more suitable for larger holdings, whereas Robusta is good to go in any size of farm. The harvest of Arabica coffee mainly thrives between November to January, while for Robusta, it is December to February.
Legal Establishment Of Coffee Board
The Indian government established the Coffee Board by the constitutional act of Coffee act VII of 1942 under the control of the Department of Trade and Industry. The coffee board is available in Bangalore and Karnataka and the coffee board acts as a guide to the coffee sector, covering the entire chain. The Key activities of the coffee board are mainly focused on research and development, technology transfer, quality development, expanding support for development in the growing sector, coffee promotion in foreign markets and domestic markets.
The functions of the Board are aimed at:-
(i) Product development, productivity and quality
(ii) The promotion of export to achieve a higher return on Indian Coffee coffee
(iii) Support the development of the domestic market
Coffee Cultivation Process:-
Before starting the cultivation process we have to follow some steps. The steps are as following :-
- Procure seed from authorized sources.
- Do not procure seeds from the coffee berry borer areas
- Sow the seeds after procurement as they have short viability
1. Soil and Water Protection
– Soil and moisture protection is very important in coffee plantations.
Problems related to land conservation
- Monsoon Season: Soil erosion because of sloping terrain and
- After-monsoon period: Lack of moisture (i.e., drought) may adversely affect the normal growth of Coffee.
2. Soil Erosion Prevention:
Planting soil-binding grasses such as Vetiver, Paspalum etc. across the slope at appropriate times is very important and for this purpose, generally, farmers use tractors and the most used tractors for these work are Eicher Tractor and Indo Farm Tractor which helps to fertilize the soil and helps in preventing soil erosion Growth of green manure plants such as Crotalaria, Tephrosia, cowpea, horse gram etc., in the early years of planting may be used.
Green manure plants should be plante in May-June and planted in the soil before flowering.
3. Crushing the weed growth
- Cover digging in the first year of planting ( October to November ) However, in sloped terrain, adopt only manual weeding.
- Scuffing/Rubbing during post-monsoon from 2 to 4 years of planting helps in conservation of soil moisture.
- No soil cultivation like digging and scuffing should practiced in the established fields.
- Take up the cradle pits or trenches in a staggered manner across the slop to establish the fields to preserve soil and moisture.
- Farmers use mulch base of young plants with dry leaves to conserve moisture during dry months.
4. Controlling the Weed From Damaging the Fields
In the early stages of crop planting, traditions such as digging a hole, flooding, planting cowpea, horse gram etc., can be very effective in preventing weed growth.
In established lands, integrated weed control measures that include pre-rain weed control, weed control during the rainy season and post-rain weed control will provide effective weed control. The case of chemical weed control, use a herbicide.
5. Requirement of Shade For Coffee Plants
- Avoid indiscriminate timber extraction for short term gains.
- Maintain a 2 tier shade canopy consisting of temporary adapts and permanent shade trees like Ficus, Albizia, Jackfruit etc
- Cultivation like digging and scuffling should not practice in established fields.
- Take ditches in a sloping slope to designated areas to conserve soil and moisture.
- For these purposes, farmers generally use tractors of 2 kinds that are Eicher tractor and Indo Farm Tractor.
6.Post Harvesting Process:-
- For the creation of both kinds of Coffee, picking off just ripe food is important.
- Foods should be pulped on the same day as harvest.
- Farmers mostly use only clean water for washing Coffee.
- Cover the Coffee at night to avoid re-wetting.
- Do not store Coffee along with fertilizers.
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